Sunday, March 19, 2017

Inner Planets

The inner planets. From left to right: MercuryVenusEarthMars and terrestrial dwarf planetCeres (sizes to scale)

General Astronomy. Quiz 5

Student Last Name____________First Name_________Date/__/__/______
  1. The planets of our solar system all orbit the Sun (how?)_______________, as viewed from above Earth’s North Pole.
  2. The inner terrestrial planets – Mercury, _______________, Earth, Mars – are all of comparable density and generally ____________________.
  3. The outer jovian planets – Jupiter, _____________, Uranus, and Neptune - have much lower densities and are composed mostly of gaseous or liquid ______________ and helium.
  4. The smallest (by the mass) terrestrial planet is _______________.
  5. The terrestrial planet ____________has largest for terrestrial platens orbital period.
  6. One Orbital Period of the planet ___________________is equal about 30 Earth Years.
  7. Radius of Sun is equal about ____________ Earth Radii.
  8. Average density of comet Hale-Bopp is __________kg/m3
  9. In Solar system the Planet ____________ has largest number of known Moons.
  10. Traveling in a highly elliptical orbit, a comet brightens and develops an extended _ _ _ _ as in nears the Sun.
  11. To compute the object’s size (actual diameter), we note that the ratio of its actual diameter to the circumference of the circle (2π times the distance to the object) must be equal to the ratio of the observed _ _ _ _ _ _ _ diameter to one full revolution, 360ᵒ.
  12. Let the object’s angular diameter is measured to be about 0.573ᵒ, and the distance to the object is 1 thousand kilometers. The actual diameter of this object is ________km.
  13. The density is computed by dividing the object’s mass by its ___________.
  14. The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. It is occupied by numerous irregularly shaped bodies called _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ or minor planets.
  15. A few hundred _ _ _ _ _ _ asteroids share an orbit with Jupiter.
  16. The solar _ _ _ _ is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun.
  17. The _ _ _ _ Cloud is an extended shell of icy objects that exist in the outermost reaches of the solar system.
  18. _ _ _ _ _ _ is a small body of matter from outer space that enters the earth's atmosphere, becoming incandescent as a result of friction and appearing as a streak of light.
  19. A _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the Earth's atmosphere and impact with the Earth's surface.
  20. A _ _ _ _ _ _ is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.
  21. In astrophysics, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is the accumulation of particles into a massive object by gravitationally attracting more matter, typically gaseous matter, in an _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ disk.
  22. An angular _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is proportional to (mass) х (rotation rate) х (radius)2
  23. The _ _ _ _ _ _ belt is a circumstellar disc in the Solar System beyond the planets, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.
  24. An _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ is a planet that orbits a star other than the Sun.
  25. The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ zone is the region around a star where a planet would be warm enough to have liquid water and cool enough to keep it from evaporating away.

Friday, March 10, 2017

Quiz 3

Quiz 3

Student Last Name:_________________ FirstName:_____________________Date:___/___/_____

We live on an ordinary rocky _ _ _ _ _ _ called Earth, one of _ known planets orbiting an average star called the _ _ _ .

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ly bound collection of a large number of stars is called the galaxy.

People long age ago connected the brightest stars into configurations called _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.

It was natural for early astronomers to conclude that the stars were attached to a celestial _ _ _ _ _ _.

In all, there are _ _ constellations, most of them visible from North America at some time during the year.

The apparent motion of the stars is the result of the spin, or rotation, not of the celestial sphere, but of _ _ _ _ _ .

The star _ _ _ _ _ _ _ happens to lie close to the north celestial _ _ _ _ .

In the Southern Hemisphere, the extension of Earth's _ _ _ _ in the opposite direction defines the south celestial pole.

The celestial analog of latitude is called _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .

The celestial analog of of longitude is called _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.

Declination is measured in north or south of the celestial equator.

The celestial equator is at a declination of _ _ º.

The north celestial pole is at a declination of _ _ °.

Right ascensions is measured in angular units called _ _ _ _ _ , _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , and _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , and it increases in the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ direction.

The period of time from one noon to the next noon is the 24-hour _ _ _ _ _ day.

The apparent daily progress of the Sun and other stars across the sky is known as _ _ _ _ _ _ _ motion.

A day measured by the stars is called a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ day.

Earth moves in two ways simultaneously: it rotates on its central axis while at the same time _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ around the Sun.

The _ _ _ _ _ day is 3.9 minutes longer than the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ day.

The apparent path of the Sun, relative to the stars on the celestial sphere over the course of a year is called _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .

The point on the ecliptic where the Sun is at its northernmost point above the celestial equator is known as the summer _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .

The winter solstice is the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ day in Earth's Northern Hemisphere.

Frequency = 1/ _ _ _ _ _ _ .

The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of a wave is the smallest distance over which the wave's shape repeats.



Wavelength  ×  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ = velocity.

Relaxing New Age Music Song Librarsi by Marcomé

Thursday, March 9, 2017

General Astronomy AST 110, Quiz 4

1. Frequency = 1/ __________
a) period, b) time, c) seconds, d) tension, e) speed
2. 0.2 Hz = 1/_____
a) 5, b) 5m, c) 5 Hz, d) 5 s, e) five
3. The tilt of Earth's rotation axis relative to the ecliptic is responsible for the _________ we experience.
a) seasons, b) years, c) days, d) rotational speed, e) rotational frequency
4. As the Sun crosses from the northern into the southern celestial hemisphere, we have the ___________.
a) tropical year, b) vernal equinox, c) sidereal year, d) precession, e) autumnal equinox.
5. Starting from the ___________, which is all but invisible in the sky, the Moon appears to wax.
a) full Moon, b) gibbous Moon, c) quarter Moon, d) new Moon, e) blue Moon.
6. The ___ Moon rises in the east as the Sun sets in the west.
a) full, b) gibbous, c) third quarter, d) new, e) first quarter.
7. The Sun's light is not blocked by Earth at the full phase because the Moon's orbit is ______.
a) circular, b) elliptical, c) inclined, d) incommoded, e) curved.
8. __________model of the universe has the Sun, Moon, and planets all orbiting Earth.
a) Ptolemaic, b) Heliocentric, c) Copernican, d) Retrograde, e) Gravitational.
9. Planetary orbits are ellipses having the Sun as one _________.
a) center, b) axis, c) gravity, d) focus, e) fireplace.
10. The average distance from Earth to the Sun is one astronomical ____.
a) distance, b) unit, c) kilometer, d) light year, e) parsec.
11. To change a body's velocity, a ______ must be applied.
a) acceleration, b) force, c) charge, d) mass, e) speed.
12. Every object having any ______ exerts a gravitational force on all other objects having the same.
a) speed, b) acceleration, c) position, d) mass, e) direction.
13. The number of wave crests passing any given resting point per unit time is called the wave's _____.
a) period, b) wavelength, c) amplitude, d) speed, e) frequency.
14. Wavelength of peek emission ∝ 1/ ______________ .
a) temperature in °C, b) temperature in °F, c) temperature in K, d) frequency, e) period.
15. The long axis of the ellipse is known as the ___________ .
a) semimajor axis, b) perihelion, c) aphelion, d) eccentricity, e) major axis.
16. The _________ of the ellipse is equal to the distance between the foci divided by the length of the major axis.
a) semimajor axis, b) perihelion, c) aphelion, d) eccentricity, e) major axis.
17. An imaginary line connected the Sun to any planet sweeps out equal ____ of the ellipse in equal intervals of time.
a) lengths, b) areas, c) volumes, d) angles, e) pieces.
18. The planet's _________ is its point of closest approach to the Sun.
a) perihelion, b) aphelion, c) eccentricity, d) equinox, e) summer solstice.
19. The square of a planet's orbital period is proportional to the _____ of its semimajor axis.
a) length, b) size, c) cube, d) sphere, e) square.
20. The orbital period of the Venus is equal about ________of Earth years.
a) ¼ b) 3/5 c) 1 d) 2 e) 12
21. The orbital semimajor axis of the _______ is equal about 5 AU.
a) Mercury, b) Venus, c) Earth, d) Mars, e) Jupiter.
22. If P is the Saturn's sidereal orbital period in Earth years and a is its semimajor axis in astronomical units then the calculation of the ratio ______ gives the numerical result about 1.
a) P/a b) P³/a² c) P³/a d) P²/a³ e) P/a³
23. The rate of change of the velocity of an object – speeding up, slowing down, or changing direction – is called its _________.
a) gravity, b) force, c) acceleration, d) frequency, e) speed.
24. Every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the particles and inversely proportional to the _____ of the distance between them.
a) value, b) length, c) cube, d) unit, e) square.
25. The tendency of an object to keep moving at the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by a force is known as _______.
a) inventia, b) inertia, c) potentia, d) inactivity, e) speed.
26. What means the symbol P in the following formula:
(P )² = (a in astronomical units)³ / (M total in solar units) ?
a) Ptolemy, b) orbital period in Earth years, c) orbital period in Earth days, d) perimeter, e) Parallax.
27. The temperature of an object is a measure of the _____ with which its constituent particles move.
a) heat, b) speed, c) mass, d) frequency, e) spectrum.
28. Many hot objects emit a ________ spectrum of radiation, containing light of all wavelengths.
a) continuous, b) emission, c) absorption, d) continental, e) Copernican.
29. A hot ___ may produce a spectrum, consisting only of a few well-defined specific frequencies.
a) solids, b) liquids, c) gas, d) electromagnetic field, e) gamma rays.
30. The line-of-sight velocity of an object is measured my determining the Doppler shift of its ____.
a) mass, b) position, c) speed, d) size, e) spectral lines.
31. Atoms are made up of _____ charged electrons orbiting a nucleus.
a) contrary, b) well, c) negatively, d) nonconformably, e) positively.
32. The temperature of an object emitting a continuous spectrum can be measured by matching the overall distribution of radiation with a ___________ .
a) blackboard curve, b) blackbody curve, c) emission spectrum, d) radio wave, e) diffraction.
33. Only a small fraction of the radiation arriving at our planet from space actually reaches Earth's surface because of the __________ of Earth's atmosphere.
a) opacity, b) diffraction, c) interference, d) Doppler shift, e) inertia.
34. Wavelength × frequency = ________ .
a) wave period, b) mass, c) wavelength, d) amplitude, e) speed.
35. Visible light is the particular type of ______________ . a) sound waves, b) gravity, c) a beam from the eye, d) electromagnetic radiation, e) waves in luminiferous ether.
36. Total energy radiated per second ? __________ .
a) temperature, b) temperature², c) temperature³, d) temperature?, e) temperature?.
37. The symbol “∝” means “_________”.
a) infinity, b) is equal to, c) is proportional to, d) isn't equal to, e) approximately.
38. Photon energy ∝ radiation _________ .
a) frequency, b) intensity, c) power, d) wave length, e) speed.
39. A “red” photon having a frequency of _________ .
a) 4×10¹⁴, b) 4×10¹⁴ Hz, c) 4×10¹⁶, d) 4×10¹² Hz, e) 4×10¹⁴ m/s.
40. If the wavelength of an electromagnetic radiation is equal to 10 m then this radiation is called ______. a) gamma rays, b) x-rays, c) visible light, d) microwave radiation, e) radio waves.
41. If the frequency of an electromagnetic radiation is equal to 10²³ Hz then this radiation is called ______. a) gamma rays, b) x-rays, c) visible light, d) microwave radiation, e) radio waves.
42. _____ light is a mixture of colors.
a) Red, b) Yellow, c) Green, d) White, e) Black.
43. The _______ color has the largest wavelength of the visible light.
a) Red, b) Yellow, c) Green, d) Violet, e) Black.
44. The _______ color has the smallest frequency of the visible light.
a) Red, b) Yellow, c) Green, d) Violet, e) Black.
45. If the wave period of some radiation is equal to 0.1 s then the frequency of this radiation is ________ . a) 0.1 Hz, b) 1 kg, c) 10 kg, d) 100 Hz, e) 10 Hz.
46. If the speed of some waves is equal to 100 m/s and the wavelength is equal to 1 m then the frequency of this waves is ________. a) 100 Hz, b) 0.01 Hz, c) 100 s, d) 0.01 s, e) 101 Hz.
47. The symbol “r” in the formula F = GM₁M₂/r² means the _____________.
a) force, b) redshift, c) right ascension, d) frequency, e) distance.
48. The symbol “F” in the formula F = GM₁M₂/r² means the _____________.
a) force, b) redshift, c) right ascension, d) frequency, e) distance.
49. If the semimajor axis of planet “A” is 4 times greater than for planet “B” then the orbital period of planet “A” is ___ times greater than for planet “B”.
a) 1, b) 2, c) 4, d)8, e) 16.
50. If the distance between to object is increased 3 times then the gravity attraction of this bodies to each other is ___________.
a) decreased 9 times, b) decreased 3 times, c) increased 3 times, d) increased 9 times, e) decreased 2 times.

Sunday, March 5, 2017

Pillars of Creation



The Eagle Nebula


The Hubble Space Telescope has revisited its iconic image of the ‘Pillars of Creation’.